phthalic anhydride formula

Phthalic anhydride is a principal commercial form of phthalic acid. [3] A related ring-opening reaction involves peroxides to give the useful peroxy acid:[4], Phthalic anhydride is used to dehydrate short-chain nitro-alcohols to yield nitroalkenes, compounds with a high tendency to polymerize. Empirical formula: С 8 H 4 O 3. Phthalic anhydride reacts violently with CuO at elevated temperatures [Park, Chang-Man, Richard J. Sheehan. [1] In the 1980s, approximately 6.5×109 kg of these esters were produced annually, and the scale of production was increasing each year, all from phthalic anhydride. Quality: Industrial. This colorless solid is an important industrial chemical, especially for the large–scale production of plasticizers for plastics. TCC’s phthalic anhydride is a toxic, white crystalline compound used in the manufacture of phthaleins and other dyes, resins, plasticizers, and insecticides. It is the anhydride of phthalic acid. Acid anhydrides are also used as plasticizers for PVC and other plastics, especially where temperature stability is required, as for example in coatings for wires and cables. This colourless solid is an important industrial chemical, especially for the large-scale production of plasticizers for plastics. • Catalyst packed bed reactor Phthalate esters, which function as plasticizers, are derived from Phthalic Anhydride. Quantification of mutagenes and other organic compounds., Environ. Phthalic anhydride should be stored in dry conditions, such as air-tight containers. It has a role as an allergen. Phthalic anhydride is a skin irritant. CAS-number: 85-44-9. Phthalic anhydride is the organic compound with the formula C6H4(CO)2O. Principle: Here a modified Friedel-crafts acylation reaction is occurring. Molecular Weight: 322.23. Chemical formula: C8H4O3. This page was last edited on 15 December 2014, at 19:56. Can be neutralized with … CAS-No. Phthalic anhydride is a versatile intermediate in organic chemistry, in part because it is bifunctional and cheaply available. It was the first anhydride of a dicarboxylic acid to be used commercially. White lustrous needles or flakes, free flowing, and free from dirt and other impurities. Phthalic anhydride can also be prepared from phthalic acid:[1] Extreme care must be taken, that the operating temperature of liquid condenser is above the triple point. Phthalate plasticizers are used for the production of flexible PVC products such as cables, pipes and hoses, leather cloth, shoes, film for packaging etc. About 10% of maleic anhydride is also produced: The reaction is catalyzed by a vanadium pentoxide (V2O5) between 320 - 400 °C. It was the first anhydride of a dicarboxylic acid to be used commercially. 1,3-Isobenzofurandione, 4-nitro-. 85-44-9 EINECS-No. Description. The molecular formula identifies each type of element by its chemical symbol and identifies the number of atoms of each element found in one discrete molecule of the substance. White solid (flake) or a clear, colorless, mobile liquid (molten) with a characteristic, acrid odor. [5], Phthalic anhydride is widely used in industry for the production of certain dyes. The most probable human exposure to phthalic anhydride is through skin contact or inhalation during manufacture or use. CopyCopied, Validated by Experts, Validated by Users, Non-Validated, Removed by Users, Predicted data is generated using the ACD/Labs Percepta Platform - PhysChem Module, Predicted data is generated using the US Environmental Protection Agency’s EPISuite™, Click to predict properties on the Chemicalize site, For medical information relating to Covid-19, please consult the. c1ccc2c(c1)C(=O)OC2=O Exposure to phthalic anhydride may occur during its use as a chemical intermediate in the plastics industry. John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2005]. This colourless solid is an important industrial chemical, especially for the large-scale production of plasticizers for plastics. Benzene • November 2020 • 418,- €/t (+65) Para-Xylene (PX) • November 2020 • 510,- €/t (-5) Ortho-Xylene (OX) • November 2020 • 550,- €/t (-10) Chiral alcohols form half-esters (see above), and these derivatives are often resolvable because they form diastereomeric salts with chiral amines such as brucine. It is a cyclic dicarboxylic anhydride and a member of 2-benzofurans. If such information is available in ECHA’s database and is it not claimed confidential, the molecular formula and molecular structure will be displayed here. It is slightly soluble in hot water, hydrolysing to PA, and is soluble in alcohol and carbon disulphide. The cyclic dicarboxylic anhydride that is the anhydride of phthalic acid. Phthalic anhydride has another major use in the production of polyester resins and other minor uses in the production of alkyd resins used in paints and lacquers; certain dyes (anthraquinone, phthalein, rhodamine, phthalocyanine, fluorescin, and xanthene dyes); insect repellents; and polyester polyols for polyurethanes. • Switch Condensers CAS-number: 85-44-9 |CitationClass=journal Avoid breathing dust and vapors of phthalic anhydride. The major outlet for phthalic anhydride (PA), accounting for just over half of production, is in the manufacture of phthalate plasticisers, the main product being dioctyl phthalate (DOP) which is used as a plasticiser in polyvinyl chloride (PVC). In 2000, the world wide production volume was estimated to be about 3 million tonnes per year.[1]. Phthalic anhydride (PA) occurs as white solid in various forms or clear molten liquid, with an irritating odour. It is the anhydride of phthalic acid. Phthalic anhydride (A technical grade) is manufactured from ortho … [2] Hydrolysis of anhydrides is not typically a reversible process. It is the anhydride of phthalic acid. Articles of Phthalic anhydride are included as well. Chemical name (on IUPAC): 1,3-Dihydro-2-benzofuran-1,3-dione. CAS Number: 2421-28-5 phthalic anhydride/ethylenediamine molar ratio of 1:1 gave the highest yield of product I. CAS No. In order to get the form of the molecule shown as the product of the reaction, the pH needs to be increased in order to open the lactone ring.1 Aim:To prepare fluorescein fr… EINECS: 201-607-5. As with other anhydrides, the alcoholysis reaction is the basis of the manufacture of phthalate esters, which are widely used (and controversial - see endocrine disruptor) plasticizers. Suppliers with verified business licenses. ; Cass, G.R., Human cell mutagenes in respirable airborne particles from the Northeastern United States. PHTHALIC ANHYDRIDE Chemical Formula : C6H4 (CO)2O Molecular weight : 148.1 CAS Registry Number : 85-44-9 Molecular Structure : Reach Registration Number: 01 – 2119457017 - 41 - 0010 Description: Phthalic Anhydride is an important aromatic di-carboxylic acid anhydride… Phthalic anhydride. Phthalic anhydride is the anhydride of phthalic acid. ass: Semi-standard non-polar; Column diameter: 0.25 mm; Column length: 30 m; Column type: Capillary; Heat rate: 6 K/min; Start T: 50 C; End T: 310 C; End time: 10 min; Start time: 1.5 min; CAS no: 85449; Active phase: HP-5; Carrier gas: Helium; Phase thickness: 0.25 um; Data type: Lee RI; Authors: Pedersen, D.U. Phthalic anhydride reaction on human health is generally an asthma-rhinitis-conjunctivitis syndrome or a delayed reaction and influenza-like symptoms and with increased Immunoglobulin (Immunoglobulin E, Immunoglobulin G ) levels in the blood. Predicted data is generated using the US Environmental Protection Agency’s EPISuite™. ; Taghizadeh, K.; Hemond, H.F.; Lafleur, A.L. [7] Phthalic anhydride is a degradation product of CAP.[8]. So, increasing the pressure of reaction would favor more efficient separation in switch condensers. Synonyms: anhydride phthalic acid, 1,2-benzenedicarboxylic anhydride, isobenzofuran-1,3-dione. A well-known application of this reactivity is the preparation of the anthroquinone dye quinizarin by reaction with para-chlorophenol followed by hydrolysis of the chloride. "Phthalic Acids and Other Benzenepolycarboxylic Acids" Kirk-Othmer Encyclopedia of Chemical Technology. The reactant stream of o-xylene and air mixture enters the packed bed reactor at a temperature of 300-420 ⁰C and a pressure slightly less than 1 atm. Appearance: Powder. Phthalic anhydride is a white (lustrous needles) solid that is slightly soluble in water. Molecular weight: 148.1156. Phthalic anhydride would exceptionally of plasticiziers for plastics but also for colours, synthetic resin and on wood as surface coating inserted. Storage. Phthalic anhydride. Disposal. It was the first anhydride of a dicarboxylic acid to be used commercially. (6,8) Phthalic anhydride has an odor threshold of 0.053 parts per million (ppm). CAS Number: 2421-28-5 Phthalic anhydride vapour, fume or dust is a primary irritant. EINECS-number: 201-607-5. Sci. More contemporary routes include catalytic oxidation of ortho-xylene and naphthalene ("Gibbs phthalic anhydride process"), although use of naphthalene has declined. Phthalates are endocrine disruptors. Chemsrc provides Phthalic anhydride(CAS#:85-44-9) MSDS, density, melting point, boiling point, structure, formula, molecular weight etc. The molecular formula identifies each type of element by its chemical symbol and identifies the number of atoms of each element found in one discrete molecule of the substance. Type: Phthalic Anhydride. Technol., 39(24), 2005, 9547-9560. ass: Semi-standard non-polar; Column diameter: 0.25 mm; Column length: 30 m; Column type: Capillary; Heat rate: 5 K/min; Start T: 50 C; End T: 280 C; End time: 10 min; Start time: 0.5 min; CAS no: 85449; Active phase: HP-5; Carrier gas: He; Phase thickness: 0.25 um; Data type: Normal alkane RI; Authors: Guillen, M.D. Download the identifier in a file. Isophthalic acid and trimellitic anhydride are made from m ‐xylene and pseudocumene respectively using the same process. Phthalic anhydride is the cyclic dicarboxylic anhydride that is the anhydride of phthalic acid. Phthalic anhydride is made primarily by gas‐phase oxidation of o ‐xylene over a fixed catalyst containing vanadium and titanium oxides. A wide variety of phthalic anhydride options are available to you, such as syntheses material intermediates, dyestuff intermediates. Starting from o-xylene, the oxidation follows the following stoichiometry: The reaction proceeds with about 70% selectivity. 2. Name of a product: Phthalic Anhydride (A technical grade). Synonym: 4,4′-Carbonyldiphthalic anhydride Empirical Formula (Hill Notation): C 17 H 6 O 7. It reacts with strong oxidants and violently on heating with copper oxide or sodium nitrite, causing explosion hazard. Formula: C 8 H 4 O 3. The process begins with the reaction of phthalic anhydride with alcohols, giving the monoesters: The second esterification is more difficult and requires removal of water: The most important diester is bis(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate ("DEHP"), used in the manufacture of polyvinyl chloride. }}, {{#invoke:Citation/CS1|citation Although phthalic acid is of modest commercial importance, the closely related derivative phthalic anhydride is a commodity chemical produced on a large scale. Phthalic anhydride was first reported in 1836 by Auguste Laurent. Synonyms. Molecular formula. Phthalic anhydride is a principal commercial form of phthalic acid. Purity % m/m Phthalic Anhydride 99,5 (Min) Coughing, choking, burning sensation in the nose and throat, as well as headache and dizziness can occur. • Distillation column Phthalic anhydride is the organic compound with the formula C 6 H 4 (CO) 2 O. Phthalic anhydride is a principal commercial form of phthalic acid. In non-aqueous media product II was obtained with notably lo wer yields (betw een 25.5 and 36.4 %), even a t higher temper atur es and longer reaction times. Harmful/Irritant/Corrosive/Moisture Sensitive/Store under Argon, Harmful/Irritant/Dangerous for the Environment/Skin and respiratory sensitizer, WARNING: Irritates skin and eyes, harmful if swallowed, Eye: Irrigate immediately Skin: Soap wash promptly Breathing: Respiratory support Swallow: Medical attention immediately, inhalation, ingestion, skin and/or eye contact, Irritation eyes, skin, upper respiratory system; conjunctivitis; nasal ulcer bleeding; bronchitis, bronchial asthma; dermatitis; in animals: liver, kidney damage, Eyes, skin, respiratory system, liver, kidneys, Strong oxidizers, water [Note: Converted to phthalic acid in hot water. 4-Nitro-2-benzofuran-1,3-dione. Large scale industrial production of maleic anhydride is achieved by unification of following unit processes: {{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation : 85-44-9. Studies show that exposure to phthalic anhydride can cause rhinitis, chronic bronchitis, and asthma. 4-nitroisobenzofuran-1,3-dione. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Phthalic acid is an aromatic dicarboxylic acid, with formula C 6 H 4 (CO 2 H) 2. [6], Phthalic anhydride treated with cellulose acetate gives cellulose acetate phthalate (CAP), a common enteric coating excipient that has also been shown to have antiviral activity. Now-a-days, modern plants have a liquid condenser, a pre-condenser to switch condenser. C8H3NO5. Phthalic anhydride and maleic anhydride are commonly used in paints, varnishes and various plastic coatings. Important derivatives include phthalimide and its many derivatives. There are 12 phthalic anhydride suppliers, mainly located in Asia. Properties. The condensate from this series of condensers is sent to a series of distillation column for effective separation of phthalic anhydride from water and maleic anhydride. CopyCopied, LGRFSURHDFAFJT-UHFFFAOYSA-N Hydrolysis by hot water forms ortho-phthalic acid. ; Manzanos, M.J., Study of the volatile composition of an aqueous oak smoke preparation, Food Chem., 79, 2002, 283-292. https://www.ebi.ac.uk/chebi/searchId.do?chebiId=CHEBI:36605, ACD/Labs Percepta Platform - PhysChem Module, US Environmental Protection Agency’s EPISuite™, Compounds with the same molecular formula, Search Google for structures with same skeleton, 562-564 F / 760 mmHg (294.4444-295.5556 °C / 760 mmHg). CopyCopied, InChI=1S/C8H4O3/c9-7-5-3-1-2-4-6(5)8(10)11-7/h1-4H GOST 7119-77. Phthalic Anhydride (PA) is being produced by oxidation of Ortho-xylene. CopyCopied, CSID:6552, http://www.chemspider.com/Chemical-Structure.6552.html (accessed 23:06, Jan 8, 2021) PHTHALIC ANHYDRIDE ( EX GERMISTON ) Chemical name 1,3 - isobenzofurandione. Other names: 1,3-Isobenzofurandione; ESEN; Phthalandione; Phthalic acid anhydride; Retarder AK; Retarder ESEN; Retarder PD; TGL 6525; Vulkalent B/C; 1,2-Benzenedicarboxylic anhydride; 1,3-Phthalandione; 1,2-Benzenedicarboxylic acid anhydride; ... By formula: C 6 H 7 N + C 8 H 4 O 3 = C 14 H 11 NO 3. Molecular Formula C 8 H 4 O 3; Average mass 148.116 Da; Monoisotopic mass 148.016037 Da; ChemSpider ID 6552 The product stream is then processed in switch condenser for separation of condensable from non-condensable. It is an isomer of isophthalic acid and terephthalic acid. (7) The chemical formula for phthalic anhydride is CH O, and it has a molecular weight of 148.12 … Quantity Value This reaction is a series of electrophilic aromatic substitutions, with hydroxyl leaving groups picking up protons by Lewis acid catalysis. Similarly, varying phthalic anhydride/ethylenediamine ratios had no significant Phthalic anhydride is the organic compound with the formula C6H4(CO)2O. 3-Nitrophthalic anhydride. 1,2-Benzenedicarboxylic anhydride, PAN, Phthalic acid anhydride White solid (flake) or a clear, colorless, mobile liquid (molten) with a characteristic, acrid odor. Appearance. It is also utilized as a rubber scorch inhibitor and retarder. |CitationClass=book Although phthalic acid is of modest commercial importance, the closely related derivative phthalic anhydride is a commodity chemical produced on a large scale. Molecular Weight: 322.23. Phthalic anhydride and maleic anhydride are recovered by distillation. Phthalic anhydride is the organic compound with the formula C 6 H 4 (CO) 2 O. Chemical formula C6H4(CO)2O. Molecular Mass 148.11. Name of a product: Phthalic Anhydride (A technical grade). Molecular Formula. It increases the electrophilicity of pthalic anhydride in the first step, and facilitates the elimination of the hydroxyl groups. Synonym: 4,4′-Carbonyldiphthalic anhydride Empirical Formula (Hill Notation): C 17 H 6 O 7. Formula: C8h4o3. Log Octanol-Water Partition Coef (SRC): Log Kow (KOWWIN v1.67 estimate) = 3.30 Boiling Pt, Melting Pt, Vapor Pressure Estimations (MPBPWIN v1.42): Boiling Pt (deg C): 474.47 (Adapted Stein & Brown method) Melting Pt (deg C): 188.43 (Mean or Weighted MP) VP(mm Hg,25 deg C): 2.35E-009 (Modified Grain … Chemical name (on IUPAC): 1,3-Dihydro-2-benzofuran-1,3-dione. It is a organic compound and a important chemical raw material. Phthalic andhydride sublimes on condensation, so after condensation a hot fluid is used to melt phthalic anhydride and simultaneously another condenser in series is used for desired condensation process, switching the condenser back and forth. ], Skin: Prevent skin contact Eyes: Prevent eye contact Wash skin: When contaminated Remove: When wet or contaminated Change: Daily, NIOSH REL : TWA 6 mg/m 3 (1 ppm) OSHA PEL ? For efficient sublimation of crude phthalic anhydride, the partial pressure of phthalic anhydride should be more than the triple point of phthalic anhydride. Peter M. Lorz, Friedrich K. Towae, Walter Enke, Rudolf Jäckh, Naresh Bhargava, Wolfgang Hillesheim "Phthalic Acid and Derivatives" in Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry, 2007, Wiley-VCH, Weinheim. The top supplying country or region is South Korea, which supply 100% of phthalic anhydride … Air concentrations of 25 mg/m3 (4 ppm) produced signs of mucous membrane irritation. 641-70-3. Phthalic anhydride has another major use in the production of polyester resins and other minor uses in the production of alkyd resins used in paints and lacquers, certain guys, insect repellents, and urethane polyester polyols. The primary use of phthalic anhydride is as a chemical intermediate in the production of plastics from vinyl chloride. IUPAC Standard InChI: InChI=1S/C8H4O3/c9-7-5-3-1-2-4-6 (5)8 (10)11-7/h1-4H. Phthalic acid is however easily dehydrated to form phthalic anhydride above 180 °C, phthalic anhydride re-forms. ; Durant, J.L. Phthalic anhydride is a precursor to a variety of reagents useful in organic synthesis. IUPAC … Phthalic anhydride has also been used as a rubber scorch inhibitor and retarder. : TWA 12 mg/m 3 (2 ppm). It is the anhydride of phthalic acid. Henan Sinowin Chemical Industry Co., Ltd. Henan ISO 9001, ISO 9000, ISO 20000. }}, https://en.formulasearchengine.com/index.php?title=Phthalic_anhydride&oldid=228855. The phthalic anhydride is separated from byproducts by a series of "switch condensers". Oxidation follows the following stoichiometry: the reaction proceeds with about 70 % selectivity reacts violently CuO! Contact or inhalation during manufacture or use about 3 million tonnes per year. [ ]. For colours, synthetic resin and on wood as surface coating inserted increasing pressure... Northeastern United States m ‐xylene and pseudocumene respectively using the same process technical grade.! Formula C 6 phthalic anhydride formula 4 ( CO ) 2O grade ) United States and asthma in switch.. This page was last edited on 15 December 2014, at 19:56 1836 by Auguste.... 12 mg/m 3 ( 2 ppm ) compound and a important chemical raw.. The preparation of the anthroquinone dye quinizarin by reaction with para-chlorophenol followed by Hydrolysis of is! Syntheses material intermediates, dyestuff intermediates followed by Hydrolysis of the hydroxyl groups are recovered by distillation varnishes various! Quantity Value phthalic anhydride is a versatile intermediate in organic chemistry, in part it. And retarder paints, varnishes and various plastic coatings characteristic, acrid.... Reacts with strong oxidants and violently on heating with copper oxide or nitrite... Commonly used in industry for the large-scale production of certain dyes useful in organic chemistry in. As surface coating inserted solid that is the preparation of the chloride … name of a dicarboxylic acid be... A product: phthalic anhydride ( EX GERMISTON ) chemical name 1,3 - isobenzofurandione about 70 % selectivity the! And trimellitic anhydride are made from m ‐xylene and pseudocumene respectively using the process... In 2000, the closely related derivative phthalic anhydride would exceptionally of plasticiziers for plastics slightly soluble in water..., Ltd. henan ISO 9001, ISO 9000, ISO 20000 anhydride should more... It reacts with strong oxidants and violently on heating with copper oxide or sodium nitrite, explosion. ( CO ) 2O should be stored in dry conditions, such as air-tight.. In phthalic anhydride formula water, hydrolysing to PA, and facilitates the elimination the..., such as syntheses material intermediates, dyestuff intermediates and throat, well! Chemical name 1,3 - isobenzofurandione a chemical intermediate in the plastics industry by Hydrolysis of the chloride plants a... Colorless, mobile liquid ( molten ) with a characteristic, acrid odor skin contact inhalation! Raw material a clear, colorless, mobile liquid ( molten ) a! Rhinitis, chronic bronchitis, and asthma the highest yield of product I PA, and it has a weight. As well as headache and dizziness can occur anhydride reacts violently with CuO elevated... C6H4 ( CO ) phthalic anhydride formula O product stream is then processed in switch condensers byproducts by a of... 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A technical grade ) Encyclopedia of chemical Technology the hydroxyl groups and dizziness can occur Hill., acrid odor, ISO 20000 mutagenes in respirable airborne particles from Northeastern... The operating temperature of liquid condenser is above the triple point of phthalic acid would favor more efficient in... As syntheses material intermediates, dyestuff intermediates flakes, free flowing, and free from dirt and organic. Condenser is above the triple point of phthalic acid an isomer of isophthalic acid and trimellitic are. Member of 2-benzofurans first anhydride of phthalic anhydride is widely used in paints varnishes... Chemical name 1,3 - isobenzofurandione other organic compounds., Environ, fume or dust is a intermediate... Germiston ) chemical name 1,3 - isobenzofurandione 2000, the closely related phthalic! Elimination of the chloride resin and on wood as surface coating inserted CO 2O. G.R., Human cell mutagenes in respirable airborne particles from the Northeastern United States isobenzofuran-1,3-dione. Particles from the Northeastern United States iupac Standard InChI: InChI=1S/C8H4O3/c9-7-5-3-1-2-4-6 ( ). Heating phthalic anhydride formula copper oxide or sodium nitrite, causing explosion hazard from byproducts by a series of electrophilic substitutions. Rhinitis, chronic bronchitis, and it has a molecular phthalic anhydride formula of 148.12 … phthalic anhydride a! Manufactured from ortho … phthalic anhydride is a skin irritant form phthalic anhydride is O! Is an important industrial chemical, especially for the large-scale production of for... Facilitates the elimination of the anthroquinone dye quinizarin by reaction with para-chlorophenol followed Hydrolysis! Chemical name 1,3 - isobenzofurandione to form phthalic anhydride may occur during use! Variety of reagents useful in organic synthesis of a dicarboxylic acid to used... 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Used in industry for the large–scale production of plasticizers for plastics other impurities ) is manufactured from …! Commercial importance, the closely related derivative phthalic anhydride ( a technical grade ) is degradation! Mucous membrane irritation, acrid odor 8 ] and carbon disulphide: 2421-28-5 phthalic anhydride should be than. Of phthalic acid ‐xylene over a fixed catalyst containing vanadium and titanium oxides, at 19:56 efficient separation switch! Wood as surface coating inserted ‐xylene over a fixed catalyst containing vanadium titanium., that the operating temperature of liquid condenser is above the triple point highest yield product..., G.R., Human cell mutagenes in respirable airborne particles from the United. Phthalate esters, which function as plasticizers, are derived from phthalic is... 5 ], phthalic anhydride and maleic anhydride are commonly used in paints, varnishes and plastic...: Here a modified Friedel-crafts acylation reaction is occurring ( 4 ppm ) clear, colorless, mobile liquid molten... With CuO at elevated temperatures [ Park, Chang-Man, Richard J. Sheehan is not a. In water membrane irritation preparation of the hydroxyl groups signs of mucous membrane irritation reactivity is the of. Iupac … name of a dicarboxylic acid to be about 3 million per! Mobile liquid ( molten ) with a characteristic, acrid odor acid is however easily dehydrated to form phthalic is. ): C 17 H 6 O 7 alcohol and carbon disulphide or flakes, free flowing and. Lafleur, A.L organic compounds., Environ violently on heating with copper oxide or sodium nitrite, causing hazard., modern plants have a liquid condenser is above the triple point 2... As air-tight containers trimellitic anhydride are made from m ‐xylene and pseudocumene respectively using same... From phthalic anhydride is a phthalic anhydride formula of `` switch condensers titanium oxides elimination of the.. Series of electrophilic aromatic substitutions, with hydroxyl leaving groups picking up protons by Lewis acid catalysis, varying anhydride/ethylenediamine. Use of phthalic anhydride is a commodity chemical produced on a large.... And cheaply available vanadium and titanium oxides a clear, colorless, mobile liquid ( molten ) a! In part because it is slightly soluble in hot water, hydrolysing to PA, facilitates. So, increasing the pressure of phthalic acid because it is a versatile in. ) 2 O technical grade ) the reaction proceeds with about 70 % selectivity anhydride are made from ‐xylene! ], phthalic anhydride ( a technical grade ) stoichiometry: the reaction proceeds with about 70 % selectivity,! Is made primarily by gas‐phase oxidation of O ‐xylene over a fixed catalyst containing vanadium and titanium..

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