Prisoners of war captured by the Japanese, in the Asian theaters of war, were imprisoned in concentration camps in Japan, Taiwan, Singapore, China and other regions occupied by the Imperial Army. Opened in 1941, this housed 3,700 allied civilians released by US Rangers and Filipino Guerrillas on February 3rd 1945. De Brug - The Bridge on the River Kwai (Khwae-Toi). Although Japanese registers the majority of the information is given in English. Ship sunk 21 September 1944 by an unidentified US submarine. It should be mentioned that they had the greatest difficulty in obtaining the necessary permits for each visit, that during the visit they had to refrain from all reference to humanitarian texts in order not to anger the Japanese authorities, and that the latter always regarded them with suspicion and ill-will. There are many incidents of particular barbarity within the 3 years+ of Japanese captivity, here are a few of the more infamous. These will contain the following sections: Camp, name, nationality, place of capture, fathers name, place of origin, next of kin and address, POW number, date of birth, unit and service number, date captured, mothers name, occupation and some other remarks. Jun 25, 2019 - Explore Philip Williams's board "WW2. Sailed from Celebes to Kendari on 10/1/44 with 9 POWs on board. The Far East Prisoner of War records are a part of the larger Prisoners of War 1715-1945 collection from The National Archives. It then carried 20 prisoners from Wake Island to Yokohama, Japan beginning November 1st, 1942 and later carried 71 prisoners from Singapore to Moki, Japan beginning September 21st, 1943. The engines were rated at 475 hp (354 kW). Colonel E. B. Holmes and other senior Allied officers were taken to Beting Kusah anti-aircraft practice ground to witness the execution of the four escapee POWs which took place at Changi Beach. Note: there may be duplicated entries for some camp descriptions as camp names and sub names are often confusing: i.e. Built by the Hong Kong government as a refugee camp before the war (as was North Point POW Camp), it began life as a POW camp soon after Kowloon and the New Territories were abandoned to the Japanese. to be used by the Japanese Armed Forces in the occupied areas. Rear Admiral Hatakeyama was found to have ordered the Laha massacres, however, he died before he could be tried. The barracks buildings were overcrowded and many had to live in makeshift tents in the Square. Maebashi Maru (AKA Maybashi/Maebassi maru), Mati Mati Maru (AKA Matti Matti Maru, Canadian Inventor). A harrowing account of the sinking and murder of many POWs is found in the book ‘Ships from Hell: Japanese War Crimes on the High Seas in World War II’ By Raymond Lamont-Brown. The Changi Peninsula had been the British Army's principal base area in Singapore. Along with the rest of the 24th Group, he ended up at Bataan, where he flew the last combat mission on April 8, 1942. Japanese site - Covers Japanese camps only, accurate camp descriptions and a great deal of background information. Roberts Barracks remains in use but the original buildings at Selerang were demolished in the 1980s. A Dutch-built ship of 2071 tonnes, launched in 1900. In late August the Asama Maru reached Lourenço Marques with some 800 civilians from Japan, South-East Asia and the Philippines, and within the following fortnight, the Tatura Maru and the Kamakura Maru arrived with a further 1000-odd from occupied China. In General, no direct access to the POWs was provided to the International Red Cross. About 36,000 were transported to the Japanese Mainland to supplement the shortage of the work force, and compelled to work at the coal mines, mines, shipyards, munitions factories, etc. "BRITISH CIVILIANS INTERNED BY THE JAPANESE DURING WORLD WAR II" By Ron BRIDGE A requirement to establish a definitive list of British subjects interned as civilians by the Japanese in Concentration Camps (some euphemistically called Civil Assembly Centres by Tokyo) has shown that no comprehensive list appears to be in existence. 37,583 prisoners from the United Kingdom, Commonwealth and Dominions, 28,500 from Netherlands and 14,473 from the United States were released after the surrender of Japan. Here, many who were not beaten to death by the guards died from disease (mainly cholera and dysentery), exhaustion or starvation. Typically, they were two-storied wooden buildings in a compound surrounded by wooden walls topped with barbed wire. Sister Bullwinkel was later captured again and spent the rest of the war in captivity. Next to the Huai Ro Khi river it had 3 large huts up to 75 metres long originally but grew in size later. None survived. The prisoners of war suffered greatly at the hands of the guards for not cutting the rock quickly or well enough. He and his crew sent two torpedoes speeding through the icy waters of the South China Sea toward the ship, striking it on the starboard number three hold and the stern. This was the Kempeitai (Japanese military/secret police) centre for hard labour, torture and execution. You learn not to get too close to someone because the next day they could be dead. Around 1500 servicemen & women were captured in South Sumatra and many were taken onto Singapore. TNA also holds liberated prisoner of war interrogation questionnaires in WO 344 . As prisoners tried to escape the flames they were then bayoneted or shot down. J-Japan sailed from Singapore on 16 May 43. It was this incident that prompted the famous POW rescue raids later in 1945. Roofs of the POW camps were marked with the letters ‘PW’ and relief supplies were dropped by parachute using US Navy fighter-bombers and US Air Force B-29 heavy bombers. Sailed from Singapore on 04/7/44 to Moji, Japan via Manila (Phillipines) arriving on 13/8/44 with 609 POWs. It was torpedoed and sunk 30 July 1945 by USS Sennet (SS-408) off Hokkaido. Carried 1100 POWs from Singapore to Moji (Japan) on 30/10/42. About 40 per cent were missionaries from 22 different denominations, some who had recently fled China and organized a language school in Baguio. The Germans were obliged to apply this humane treatment to Jewish prisoners of war who wore the British Army’s uniform, thus sparing them the horrific fate meted out to other Jews. News of those held in the Dutch East Indies seems to have been withheld the longest. Grashio and his squadron commander, Lieutenant Ed Dyess, eight other Americans, and two Filipinos escaped from a work camp in Davao Region, the Philippines into the jungle on Sunday, April 4, 1943. Left Belawan Sumatra on 25/6/44 bound for Pakanbaroe Sumatra and was sunk by Submarine HMS Truculent the next day, 180 of 720 POW and 27 of 55 Japanese troops killed. With the lack of food, water and proper hygiene the number of cases of dysentery and diphtheria began to rise. Kachidoki Maru (AKA Kakko maru/President Harrison). On top of the main hatch cover, 80 men were sleeping. Sailed from Hong Kong to Nagasaki with 1200 POWs on 19/1/43. Sailed from Ambon to java departing on 31/8/44 and going via Makassar and to Surabaya with 300 pows on board, arriving in Java on 29/9/44. Inatsuki (Yamano) Branch Camp (Fukuoka 8-B), Osarisawa (Hanawa) Branch Camp (Sendai 6-B), Hiraoka (Mitsushima) Branch Camp (Tokyo 12-B), Kumamoto Branch Camp and Fukuoka Branch Camp (Fukuoka 1-B), Kawasaki Ogimachi Branch Camp (Tokyo 2-B) (aka ‘The Mitsui Madhouse’), Nagasaki Mitsubishi Dockyard Branch Camp (Fukuoka 14-B), Fushiki Hokkai Electro-Chemical Branch Camp (Nagoya 6-D), Toyama Nippon Soda Branch Camp (Nagoya 7-D), Toyama Tateyama Heavy Industry Branch Camp (Nagoya 8-D), Toyama Nippon Express Branch Camp (Nagoya 9-D), Fushiki Sea and Land Transportation Branch Camp (Nagoya 10-D), Toyama Nippon Soda Iwase Ironworks Branch Camp (Nagoya 11-D), Niigata Sea and Land Transportation Branch Camp (Tokyo 5-B), Niihama Isoura Branch Camp (Hiroshima 2-B), Nishi Ashibetsu Branch Camp (Hakodate 4-B), Yakumo Detached Camp (Hakodate 1-Detached), Yamashita Camp – see Yokohama Ship Loading Dispatched Camp (Tokyo 19-D), Mitsubishi Heavy Industry Yokohama Ship-building Dispatched Camp (Tokyo 1-D), Nippon Steel Tube Tsurumi Ship-building Dispatched Camp (Tokyo 3-D), Osaka Ship-building Yokohama Dispatched Camp (Tokyo 10-D), Nippon Steel Tube Asano Ship-building Dispatched Camp (Tokyo 13-D), Yokohama Proof-brick Dispatched Camp (Tokyo 18-D), Yokohama Ship Loading Dispatched Camp (Tokyo 19-D), Zentsuji Headquarters Camp & Zentsuji Subcamp 3 (Hiroshima area POW Camp). There were also many deaths caused by guard atrocities, and almost all POWs were executed after they had attempted to escape and were recaptured. The Cabanatuan prison camp was named after the nearby city of 50,000 people (locals also called it Camp Pangatian, after a small nearby village). It may be that as a consequence, conditions in the Korean camps, and especially at Keijo, were significantly better than in most other Japanese controlled camps. A Japanese officer ordered the remaining twenty-two nurses and one civilian woman to walk into the surf. Occupied originally by British POWs from F Force who had left Changi (Singapore) in April 1943. Many camps were re-designated during their lifetime hence some camp names may be worded differently or even have several versions. Rangoon Prison, 1945. Cruelly & ironically the Japanese frequently painted supply ships with Red Crosses, yet did not do the same for those vessels that deserved these markings. It should be noted that only in the case of Japan ‘proper’ (i.e. 14). All 500 internees were crowded into a single building, which had previously housed 60 soldiers, and the Japanese made little provision for food and water. Sailed from Singapore to Manila on 04/7/44 with 1287 POWs on board arriving 15 days later. The 110 most severe cases were taken to a primitive military hospital in Kokura where 73 died within a month. JC/69 Bicycle Camp Gang, Ambon, Amboina, Ambon Group, JC/75 Amahi, Ambon, Amboina, Beram Is, Ambon Group, JC/111 Ambon, Ambon Group, Haroekoe Isle, Ambon Group, JC /115 Kuching, Sarawak, ( Sawmill/Jetty) Borneo, JC /17 Mergui, Kirikhan Road, (jungle road) Burma, JC /93 Longi, Ronsu, 62-kilo railway camp, Burma, JC /100 Anankurin, Anaquin, Amankwin, Burma Railway, Burma, JC /123 Apalon, Umbron, 83-kilo railway camp, Burma, JC /199 Kunbuitkway, 25-kilo railway camp, Burma, JC /230 Wagele, 8-kilo railway camp, Burma, JC /231 Massale, 70-kilo railway camp, Burma, JC /232 108 kilo railway camp, Burma ( on the border with Siam ), JC /271 Mezali, 75-kilo railway camp, Burma, JC /327 Kando, Kandaw, Hospital Transit Camp, Burma, JC /259 Weinsen Internment Camp, Shantung Province, China, JC /37 Saigon, Saigon Docks, French Indo China, JC /68 Fumi, Phumy, Saigon Camp, French Indo China, JC /91 Lienkhang, Saigon, French Indo China, JC /168 Fumi Camp, No.1 Camp Fumi, nr Saigon, French Indo China, JC /224 Song Long Song Camp, French Indo China, JC /43 Kinkaseki, No. Used as a POW & Internment camp between April 1942 and June 1944. 10/1/43 1000 Dutch transported from Java to Moulmein but sunk 15/1/43 in the Andaman sea with 961 survivors. Military records of British Prisoners of War (PoWs) during the Great War period are often incomplete, difficult to find, and hard to access. When the POWs were unable to work because of illness their food ration was cut. Most of the causes of death were a disease, malnutrition, overwork, and poor sanitary conditions. Censorship was a prime difficulty in the way of prompt delivery: piles of uncensored mail were found in some Japanese camp offices on liberation, and it seems probable that some were destroyed to avoid the work involved in censorship. Water had to be carried for one mile as the water main had been broken during the bombing. It left Manila on 13 December 1944 and over the next two days was bombed and strafed by American planes. These nurses joined up with a group of men and injured personnel from the ship. Only 11 men escaped via holes in the perimeter fence, they later testified in war crimes tribunals. By creating an account you agree to us emailing you with newsletters and discounts, which you can switch off in your account at any time, 2 million exclusive records, found only on our site, Records transcribed in the UK for maximum accuracy, 1 on 1 Personal assistance from military photo and document experts, Access to Orbats mapping tool, allowing you to trace your WW1 ancestors steps. Archive List > Prisoners of War. Sometimes they were thrown into very small cells without food. POWs who were allowed to remain at either of these camps were often from Changi Camp and still fit to work. Jul 31, 2016 - Explore Theresa Steele's board "World War II: Prisoners of War", followed by 281 people on Pinterest. At this point, the Japanese relied on sea transportation to provide supplies for troops stationed there. Suga attended the official surrender of the Japanese forces in the Kuching area by their commander, Major-General Hiyoe Yamamura, onboard HMAS Kapunda on the 11th September 1945. The Japanese military police (Kempeitai) used Outram Road Gaol in Singapore as a place of punishment for all those who broke their rules – prisoners of war, internees and local people. 73 Jaokunnen Rd, Ban Nua, Kanchanaburi 71000 Thailand, WO356 index numbers for specific camps within the National Archives. On Borneo there were Japanese-run internment camps at Batu Lintang, Kuching, Sarawak, Jesselton (later Kota Kinabalu), Sandakan and briefly on Labuan island. Sailed from Hong Kong to Osaka on 15/8/43 with 501 POWs. During World War II, the Japanese Armed Forces captured nearly 140,000 Allied military personnel (Australia, Canada, Great Britain, India, Netherlands, New Zealand, and the United States) in the Southeast Asia and Pacific areas. In spite of repeated requests for the regular forwarding of complete lists, not only of captures but of transfers and casualties, the Japanese never appear to have set up an organisation capable of dealing even with the notifications of the capture of the 300,000 Allied nationals in their hands. The more interesting material is often the returning POW questionnaires found within WO392/23 (A-D) WO392/26 (R-Z), these were collated by MI9, the British secret service department responsible for escape and evasion. While hundreds of these POWs were not considered a threat by the Japanese and were used as 'guards' at Gun Club Hill Barracks and other areas, 500-600 Indian soldiers considered anti-Japanese were held at Ma Tau Chung in very unpleasant circumstances. Carried 500 prisoners from Cabanatuan to Cebu City, then Cebu City to Manila beginning July 4, 1944; same POWs sailed from Manila to Takao, Formosa beginning July 16, 1944; same POWs sailed from Takao to Keelung, Formosa beginning August 4, 1944; same POWs sailed from Keelung to Naha, Okinawa beginning August 17, 1944; POWs finally arrived in Moji, Japan on September 1, 1944. Causes of World War 2 Your email address will not be sold or shared with anybody and will only be used to send you updates for this website. As a result, the Japanese Navy established Ofuna Transitory Prison Camp in Ofuna, Kanagawa Prefecture. The men were regarded as not fit enough to be transferred to working areas but were shipped out of Changi anyway on 13 trains with no ventilation and little food or water. The ship then sailed from Manila on 11/10/44 to an unspecified port in Japan with 1800 Pows. Initially, there were Japanese language lessons for officers, at first compulsory, then voluntary. In 1917 she was sold to the Norfolk & North American Steamship Company (part of Furness Withy), London, and renamed Hartland Point. It's well known how badly Japanese soldiers treated POWs in WW2, ... that the Japanese had created. ), No. Later still, it was a camp for refugees reaching Hong Kong from other parts of South East Asia. The survivors of the sinking of the Oruku maru (see above) were held for several days in an open tennis court at Olongapo Naval Base. Moreover, according to a directive ratified on 5 August 1937 by The Japanese emperor Hirohito, the constraints of the Hague Conventions were explicitly removed from prisoners of war from China, the United States, Australia, Britain, Canada, India, the Netherlands, New Zealand and the Philippines held by the Japanese armed forces and these POWs were subject to murder, beatings, summary punishment, brutal treatment, forced labour, medical experimentation, starvation rations and poor medical treatment. Inside the compound, POW quarters usually consisted of rows of two or three-storied bunk beds with either traditional Japanese Goza (woven straw mats) or tatami (straw mattresses) on the wooden bunks. Several times a month, meat or fish was provided, but as the food situation in Japan worsened, the meat disappeared. When it was attacked and sunk on September 18, 1944, by Tradewind, the Junyo Maru was packed with 1,377 Dutch, 64 British and Australian, and 8 American prisoners of war along with 4,200 Javanese slave labourers (Romushas) bound for work on the railway line being built between Pakan Baru and Muaro in Sumatra. The best site to research POW records from Taiwan is Michael Hurst MBE's ‘POWTaiwan.org’, - highly recommended. CHANGI POW CAMP was opened after Singapore's fall on February 15th 1942 and was the main camp for the captured British and Commonwealth forces. Arrived at Moji in Japan where POWs were sent onto Taisho sub-camp, one of a group of camps around Osaka and Kobe. Changi was not just one camp but up to seven prisoner-of-war (POW) and internee camps. The senior British senior officer at Keijo, Lt Col Elrington held the perception that Australians were being particularly targeted. Carried 1,000 prisoners from Makassar, Celebes to Nagasaki, Japan beginning October 10th, 1942 and arriving 13 days later. The survivors of the sinking were held for several days in an open tennis court at Olongapo Naval Base. Japanese POW’s were made to … Prisoners in Japan, on the whole, fared better, especially those at Zentsuji (where one man received 80 letters), than men in the Dutch East Indies where the number seldom reached double figures. Dainichi was torpedoed on 08/10/43 by USS Gurnard, along with another Japanese ship, she was carrying a troop transport of over 2000 at this time. Terms of Service apply. Two months later, he was transferred to a camp at Cabanatuan. It is interesting to note the suffix ‘Maru’ –this was a common addition to ships name meaning ‘beloved’ and was intended to ‘protect’ the ships from exterior harm. H-Thailand 3270 pows left 5/5/43 and disembarked Bam Pong, 1979 men were British in this party, many of which had arrived in Singapore in February from Java. Stanley Internment Camp during Japanese occupation of Hong Kong in WW2 By The original uploader was Kevinhksouth at Chinese Wikipedia. At the same time, the Japanese guarding the prisoners opened fire on them while they were trying to abandon ship or swim to the nearby island of Mindanao. Anyone who fell behind the march was shot or bayoneted to death, their comrades forced to bury them or be executed themselves. 2,790 POWs started, and poor sanitary conditions two camps were reflected in the parade grounds as latrines one! Was commonplace cells without food day on 21/1/44 Grashio joined the other POW camps run by Dutch. 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